Quantum Candela - project partners

Istituto Nazionale di Ricerca Metrologica (INRIM, Italy)
has significantly contributed to the proposal of innovative predictable and absolute Silicon photodetectors and holds a long experience in techniques for generation, manipulation and detection of single photons. INRIM are also active in the development of innovative cryogenic single photon devices. Dr Maria-Luisa Rastello is the co-ordinator of the Qu-Candela project.
Český metrologický institut (CMI, Czech Republic)
has experience in developing high-quality electronic instruments. CMI are developing an advanced Primary Radiometry department that includes among others a state-of-the-art laser based cryogenic radiometer. CMI has recognised expertise in the silicon-trap primary standard calibration at the 0.01% level.
Justervesenet (JV, Norway)
has an established track record in photodiode research. They will perform simulations on charge-carrier losses in the new type of photodiodes and establish a connection between measurable parameters and the model predictions. JV has already acquired dedicated simulation software for this purpose.
AS Metrosert (Metrosert, Estonia)
has essential experience in research on semiconductor theory and applications. In this project they will contribute through analytical modelling of charge carrier losses in Silicon and producing an assessment of the principle requirements in the modelling of a new type of photodiode needed to achieve the accuracy at the uncertainty level of 1 ppm.
Mittatekniikan keskus (MIKES, Finland)
is in charge of the design of the new type of photodiodes, communication with sub-contracted photodiode manufacturer, photodiode surface profile measurements using AFM, and design and construction of the detector to be operated at liquid Nitrogen temperature. MIKES instruments and experience will be used for the photodiode surface profile measurements.
National Physical Laboratory, (NPL, UK)
is internationally recognised as the birthplace of cryogenic radiometry. This technology is now being extended for operation at much lower optical powers which will be essential to photon number based realisations. NPL has a proven track record in developing and characterising solid state detectors. NPL is also active in the field of photon pair generation and single photons emitters from electrically and optically pumped sources. This work involves the generation and characterisation of the photons' properties, and applications.
Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB, Germany)
has unique facilities and competencies in the required fields of radiometry. PTB has a proven track record in the characterisation of silicon photodiodes. PTB is active in the development and characterisation of single photon sources and has proven expertise in molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth of semiconductor heterostructures. PTB has a well known expertise in low noise, high bandwidth electronics for operation and characterization of TES-SQUID systems, thin film deposition and photolithography facilities for cryosensor fabrication.


Helsinki University of Technology (TKK, Finland)
TKK helps MIKES in disseminating the results related to the development of the predictable quantum efficient detector